Session 10 Response to Prompts

1. Identify five key concepts or themes related to eLearning Design and Development and explain what you know about each.

I want to focus this entry on five key concepts that I feel I’ve learned the most about over the last quarter:

  1. Image Copyrights
  2. Formative Evaluation
  3. Learning Objectives
  4. Teamwork
  5. Learner / Instructor / Content Analysis

Image Copyrights

  • After completing one of the reading assignments a few weeks ago, I sent a personal email to Dr. Newberry requesting more information on the usage of an image in a blog post.  I had just read the Horton copyright violation discussion on page 580 of the text, and was curious if an image I had used could be construed as having violated the copyright.  I got some great feedback from Dr. Newberry, and that started me on my journey to learn more:
     Remember there are four criteria that the courts use when determining the use of other people's work:
  1.      the amount of the original you use.
  2.      the nature of your use.
  3.      the nature or purpose of the original use.
  4.      the degree to which your use limits or restricts the owner of the right from making money from their right.
  • In my 501 Class, an opportunity arose to research copyright law as it pertained to e-learning, and I specifically focused on copyrights of images in e-learning.  During that research, I found this article which I found to be very helpful, especially regarding the term “fair use.” I also discovered that you can set Google Images to return a set of images that are free to use, share, or modify, even commercially:


Here’s an example of an unfiltered search for an image with the “copyright” search term.


Click on “Search tools” and then click on “Usage rights” to specify that you want only those items that you can  use, share, or modify, even commercially:


With those advanced parameters set, you can search for “copyright” again and now get a slightly different set of images (but the results are images that, ostensibly, you can use in your e-learning):


Now, be aware, that Google warns that you have to comply with the license on the site, and that often means attributing the image to its creator.  Here’s their direct statement: “Before reusing content that you’ve found, you should verify that its license is legitimate and check the exact terms of reuse stated in the license. For example, most licenses require that you give credit to the image creator when reusing an image. Google has no way of knowing whether the license is legitimate, so we aren’t making any representation that the content is actually or lawfully licensed.”

Here are some sites that contain images you can use:

Formative Evaluation

  • There are mainly two types of formative evaluation – “alpha tests” are meant to check media fidelity and “beta tests,” which come later, are meant to understand the appropriateness of the material.
  • 541 Group Project: In the 541 Group Project, we incorporated two Formative Evaluations within each module: one for the lectures and one for the discussions.  We wanted to give students a voice in how effective or ineffective they believed the lectures or discussions to be.

 6. Lecture Evaluation Form

  • 544 Group project: In the 544 Group Project, we incorporated a Formative Evaluation into the design of the course for each module, giving students a voice in how effective or ineffective they believed a module to be.


Connie Malamed hosted a podcast which addressed the feedback loop, and it was this podcast which inspired me to include the Formative Evaluation components into both group projects as a part of the overall design.

Learning Objectives

  • Horton spends many pages on learning objectives, with the “Teach ____ to ____ who _____” as the model.  However, I think the key element of a learning objective is missing from this definition.  The question of “How will you know that they learned _____ ” is essential to creating a test, and that test, necessarily influences what will be taught.
  • 544 Group Project: Before we could even begin the process, we had to nail down the learning objective.  In a lot of ways, that meant nailing down the test that we were going to create to see if the user had accomplished what we wanted them to accomplish.  Once the test was created, it helped to limit the scope of the information we were going to present.  In fact, once the test was created, it became much easier to decide on which activities would be most impactful.
  • Horton buries four “secrets to e-learning” on page 585 and the second one is to create clear learning objectives.


  • Both my 541and my 544 Group Projects have really made it clear just how essential it is to be able to function as a team.  As a team leader, it is important to disseminate tasks quickly so that everyone isn’t in a holding pattern.  New ideas should be recognized and valued immediately, as well.
  • I completely agree with Dr. Newberry’s assertion that an initial or early-stage synchronous meeting is preferable (and face-to-face is ideal).  Connecting someone’s face and personality with the work they’ll be submitting helps to encourage empathy and foster relationships.
  • I think it’s important to quickly identify the different strengths of different team members, and make sure they get to participate in areas that will play to those strengths.  You’ll get a better result, and each member will feel valued and that they are truly contributing to the success of the project.

Learner / Instructor / Content Analysis

  • One of the most valuable exercises was the 541 Group Project  “mock” interview role-play with the intended instructor.  In this role-play, I felt that my ability to ask questions was exercised, and I no longer have any qualms about gathering requirements from an instructor.
  • I feel comfortable now in analyzing the needs of the content, insofar as what would need to be presented to the learner in order to effectively teach that content.
  • In the same way, I am also comfortable in my ability to ask the instructor about what preferences or abilities he or she may have that might affect learners.
  • And finally, I am confident in my ability to gather requirements of the learners, and ask them questions that will lead to more effective e-learning.

2. Speculate on the future of eLearning and what your role in that future might be.

I think there will be more opportunity to consume traditional journal articles as audio files.  In the 541 Group Project, I proposed the idea that the packet of PDF files for the History of Western Civilization class could have each file augmented with an audio file.  This  idea was proposed as a solution to the instructor’s dissatisfaction with students not doing the reading.

I recently completed a paper for the 501 class  by reducing the text of four articles to text files for listening in the Capti iPhone app, allowing for consumption of learning content while driving, exercising, walking the dogs, cleaning my office, and searching my storage unit for an old document.

My role in the future might be to develop a learning management systems that allow self-paced learning, but whose courses are not self-contained.  Interactions with learning consultants (instructors) and cohorts that are at the same point in a self-paced course would be possible, thus creating a learning environment free to adapt to the changing schedules and various conflicts of learners.  A community of inquiry could still be present in such a hosted course, complete with social presence and teacher presence.

I also like the notion that I could develop this “create-your-own-pre-test” software tool, where you could highlight a sentence from a reading imported into the system, and then highlight key words from it in a different color.   Submitting that sentence to a question database would essentially allow such a system to provide pre-test questions with “blanks” that you would fill in.  I think it would be a quick way to create helpful study guides.  Then, the related app could send you questions with push notifications (you could control the frequency).  It would be a way to keep readings fresh in your mind as the term progresses.

Highlight Study

_____ imposed upon the bigger boys a special rule. In the very streets they were to keep their two hands within ____; they were to walk _____ and without turning their heads to gaze

3. Revise the eLearning development template/instructional design process you developed earlier for yourself.


Be sure to:

a) List all of the roles of people who will be involved in the typical development.

Typically, the people involved will just be me, the subject matter expert, and my testers.

b) Identify your role.

I will serve as the instructional designer and the course developer.  I will also make sure all courses perform as expected and are published correctly to the LMS.

c) Explain the type of courses or other eLearning development the template is for (higher education course, corporate training etc.)

The template is for corporate sector e-learning development that will consist of self-contained courses designed for users of our rigging and lifting products.

d) Provide a clear label for all included elements.

The above diagram is so labeled.  Click on the diagram to see a larger version if the labels are unclear.

e) Provide a clear description of each included element.

The elements were largely taken from Horton’s 11 steps, with some changes and some additional steps that I added.   See the narrative below for descriptions of each included element.

f) Provide a narrative explaining how the template would be used.

The template is used like so:  Upper level management decides what they want to see courses on, and those ideas are communicated to me.  I work with the subject matter expert, a retired luminary in the rigging and lifting industry.  He decides what should be taught in the course to meet the underlying goals, and he and I hash out what the needs of the resulting content will be.  Meanwhile, I am trying to figure out his needs while also trying to understand the needs of the learners that will be taking the course.  He has familiarity with those learners, and is therefore able to contribute to my understanding of their needs.  He does a first pass of the content, setting the learning objectives (he has a degree in adult education).  I work together with him to understand his intent for the learning objectives and provide input.  He then decides what prerequisites would be required in order for the learners to use the course.  As the instructional designer, it is my responsibility to pick the approach to meet each objective, however, our SME is also qualified to do this, so he typically will do so during the first pass.  The SME suggests the sequence for teaching the different objectives and I give input.  Together, he and I create the learning objects to accomplish each objective, and with the help of the SME, I develop tests and non-graded assessment activities.  He and I then select learning activities that will allow the user to learn the material upon which they will be tested.  With input from the SME on appropriate photos, videos, audio and other media, I populate the learning activities with engaging multimedia, making sure that our learning objects are free of copyright violations.  I do some preliminary testing of the product at the end of the development phase and get several individuals involved who will be helping to test the product.  I add in a formative evaluation component that will allow learners to communicate back to us if there were any difficulties, or if they have ideas for improvement after the course is published.  I then publish the evaluation version of the self-contained course and let the testers do some alpha testing.  After making any alpha revisions required, I then identify participants for a beta program and release the product to them.   I then further revise the course based on the beta tests and release the course.

Posted in Assignments
2 comments on “Session 10 Response to Prompts
  1. Brian says:

    Well done! I like how you blended ideas from multiple classes to discuss your learning this quarter.

  2. Jenny Lopez says:

    Thank you for including the image copyright component, I need to learn more about it.

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